Human being is a social animal. Being the part of the society it requires him to communicate with other members of the society. An individual will has to play different role in their life like an employee, as a neighbor, family member, social worker, superior officer etc. in order to perform all these roles he need to have contact with others, which necessitates the need for communication.
Whatever we know is of less use unless we communicate it to others. Because only then the purpose or value of the knowledge is utilized. For this, that person will have to communicate in any of the communication forms. The various choices available are oral, written, etc. This is the essence of communication.
Sometimes people will have to communicate with their dear ones. In some situations, one may have to communicate some personal things with others. When communication takes place between two persons, it is called as inter personal communication. As the name, implies there will be a personal touch in inter personal communication because the two members involved in the communication are usually will be face to face and know each other.
Interpersonal communication is “The process of creating unique, shared meaning”, but the impact of this statement depends on the images if calls to mind. (Em Griffin, a first look at communication Theory, Chapter Interpersonal Messages, Page numbers = 52). The sender sends the message through a channel to the receiver.
SYMBOLIC INTERACTION: –
Humans act forward people or things on the basis of the meanings they assign to those people or things. (Em Griffin, a first look at communication Theory, Chapter 4 symbolic interactionism, Page numbers = 56). A person might behave or perform or communicate in one manner, but the receivers of it may interpret in various ways. For example, an act of the police will be responded differently by the government, opposition party, coalition party, social activity, court, media, public etc.
Communication arises out of the social interaction that people have with each other. In other words, communication is not inherent in objects. As human beings, we have the ability to name the objects. We can designate a particular person or identity an action. Sometimes we give our own ideas to the situations.
Speech is an important tool in organizing people. It distinguishes human beings from other animals. Through an oral speech, one can gather large number of people and get their support if he had conveyed the message effectively. This needs that interpersonal communication needs much of communication skills in order to attain the communication objective. Because only if the listener understand what the message conveyed by the sender a meaningful and effective interpersonal communication takes place.
But symbolic interaction is not just a means for intelligent expression; it’s also the way we learn to interpret the world. A symbol is “a stimulus that has a learned meaning and value for people”. (Em Griffin, a first look at communication Theory, Chapter 4 symbolic interactionism, Page numbers = 57).
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION: –
When interpersonal communication takes place both the sender and receiver are present. So it needs for face to face communication. In this minimum two members are required. This can be utilized for effective communication. Because it facilitates for immediate clarification since both the parties are present. This will help the sender of the message to know the communication is effective or not. Even if there is any mistake while transferring the message, it can be easily created.
In interpersonal communication, since face to face communication is possible the sender or the speaker can create an impression on the receiver. This is adopted as a very good marketing technique. Some aggressive salesmen are effective in completing the sales and finding new customers. Because when they display the products during the conversation they create an impression on the customer. This will help the business to increase their turnover.
Again, in everyone’s life there will be some misunderstanding with each other. This may be because of the confusion between the two persons about their acts or incomplete communication. There may be chances that some might have created gossips among them. The solution for all these interpersonal problems, especially between husband and wife is interpersonal communication. Because if they speak with open minded all their problems and confusions can be solved. During this, they can have immediate clarification which removes the misunderstanding. It facilitates face to face communication which creates understanding between the two.
In interpersonal communication, people can express their feelings. They will get the freedom of expression. They can reduce their stress. They can share their knowledge.
INTRA-PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: –
In every communication, the first communication is to the communicator himself then it passes to others. When I want to communicate some information to other person, a communication process take place within me before I pass the information to other. The moment an urge to communicate arise in my mind that message is transferred to the brain where the message is processed and passed through the medium of either tongue or hand. At times even gestures are used to pass the message in communication.
So, when a communication takes place within a person is called INTRA PERSONAL COMMUNICATION. Here there is only one person involved in it. The various situations in which intra personal communication takes place are thinking while making a decision from the available choice, thinking in the examination hall while writing examination, dreaming in the class with opened eyes when lecture is going on.
In intra-personal communication, the source of the communication is the person himself. Because there is only one person involved in it. Again the communication is to self. The source of the communication is the thought which arise in one’s mind. The reason for the arise of such thoughts may be the past experience in the person’s life. Some events in one’s life, may be good or bad, remains in ones memories. At times, these things will arise in one’s mind when he is alone. This stimulates for further communication within the person and acts as a source of communication in intra personal communication.
In intra personal communication the receiver of the message is the person himself. When a person communicates something to himself then he only is the receiver of the message. When a person is dreaming, only he comes to know about it and noone else. When a person wants to take a decision from the various choices available, in his thinking process he is communicating to himself and noone else.
In intra personal communication, the transmission of message takes place with in one person. When one urge or wish rise in one’s mind it is transferred to brain. Heart is such a flesh that if it is pure then rest all his actions will be good but if it got spoiled then rest all his actions gets spoiled. Likewise, will be the actions from that person. This wish or message is transferred to the brain and there the process takes place. Here, whatever the person things is fit for himself or according to his taste will be entered to his mind. Ultimately all his decisions and actions depend on the matter which is entered in to his mind.
In the whole intra personal communication, the sender of the message, the receiver of the message, the processing of message and the reception of the message takes place within the person.
Among the youngsters, when they dream they dream about the fun moments with their friends. Those memories are everlasting and memorable ones. While imaging about these moments unknowingly one might smile with himself. This is the result of intra-personal communication. Here the person himself had done whole the process of communication. It started when his mind urged him to think of his past memories. This message was passed to brain which recalled the memories. The feelings of those things had made him to smile which means the communication was effective. The problem in such situation is that which when a person smile alone then the people around him might take it in a wrong way. So it is better to think of such things when the person is alone.
Some personalities who are well – known for their talent in the relevant field are usually respected by the society. They have succeeded in their career in their respective fields. The common feature among most of the eminent personalities is that most of them were good leaders. They were able to lead the people along with them. Depending upon the character, they influenced the behavior of others. For example, Mahatma Gandhi who is the father of our nation, had adopted a path of “Ahimsa” which means non- violence. But the autocratic leader Adolf Hitler was a dictator. His principle was to attack other countries. Gandhiji’s followers followed the path of non- violence. But like Hitler his soldiers were very cruel and aggressive in attacking people of other countries. In inter personal communication the behavior, character and attitude of one person will have an impact on others who follow them. In the above example, both gandhiji and Hitler had so many followers. They obeyed their leader’s instructions. But their acts were different. Because both of them communicated differently. When Gandhiji advocated for non- violence, Hitler did violence. So the way one communicates will also have an effect on the others. It can be said that interpersonal communicate can be used to influence the behavior of others. This we can see in politics, whatever the political leaders say without the need for any explanation their followers or party workers do it. Some of the political parties have their own criminals who will do anything as per the instructions given by the political party leaders.
The communication is the inseparable part of human being. Everyone including deaf and dumb will communicate. Some people who is bed ridden and cannot speak will even communicate through eyes. The interpersonal communication which is a face to face communication is between two people. In intra personal communication, it is within a person. In interpersonal communication one will be the sender and the other will be the receiver of the message. Whereas in the case of intra personal communication both the sender and the receiver of the message is the same person.
1. A first look at communication theory by Em Grifinn.
2. Theorizing Communication by Robert T Craig and Heidi L Muller